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Extra info for Agriculture, Trade and the Environment: The Pig Sector (Agriculture, Trade and the Environment)

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Large, environmentally controlled facilities, which spread costs over a larger number of animals and improve production efficiency, give producers in emerging areas distinct cost advantages (Key and McBride, 2001; Martinez, 1999). 4. Regional pig farm structural characteristics in selected countries, 1990, 1995 and 1997 France Bretagne Pays-de-la-Loire Midi-Pyrénées Nord-Pas-de-Calais Aquitaine 1990 1995 1997 Share of Share of Pigs per Share of Share of Pigs per Share of Share of Pigs per pigs holdings holding pigs holdings holding pigs holdings holding % % head % % head % % head 100 100 82 100 100 157 100 100 193 54 15 304 57 14 635 58 14 786 8 7 95 10 7 215 10 7 271 5 15 28 4 16 43 4 15 50 6 4 130 4 3 213 4 3 261 4 13 25 4 13 46 4 14 49 Germany Niedersachsen Nordrhein-Westfalen Bayern Baden-Württemberg Schleswig-Holstein 100 26 21 13 8 5 100 17 13 31 18 2 98 151 159 42 45 241 100 28 23 15 9 5 100 16 13 32 17 2 118 204 207 55 63 318 100 29 24 15 9 5 100 16 14 31 17 2 131 233 227 61 71 346 Italy Lombardia Emilia Romagna Piemonte Veneto Friuli-Venezia Giulia 100 34 23 9 7 2 100 4 3 3 6 2 24 187 171 86 26 29 100 37 21 9 7 3 100 3 3 2 6 2 29 316 214 168 35 41 100 37 21 10 7 4 100 4 2 1 6 1 33 334 306 232 37 103 Spain Cataluña Aragón Castilla y León Andalucía Murcia 100 32 13 15 9 6 100 4 3 19 7 1 38 275 141 31 45 187 100 35 14 14 8 5 100 5 2 18 7 1 61 416 369 47 71 375 100 36 15 14 9 6 100 6 3 16 7 1 102 575 494 93 122 548 United States Iowa North Carolina Illinois Indiana Missouri Ohio 100 25 5 10 8 5 3 100 13 4 6 5 6 5 203 394 280 373 338 175 132 100 23 14 8 7 6 3 100 15 4 6 5 5 5 346 540 1367 500 444 418 212 100 24 16 8 6 6 3 100 15 4 6 5 5 6 501 811 2133 627 608 645 250 Sources: EUROSTAT, NASS (various).

Source: OECD Secretariat, adapted from Hartung (2001) and Monteny (2001). While there are a range of different manure storage systems, for most OECD countries manure is separated from pigs by slatted floors or open channels, and the slurry stored as a liquid in storage tanks (Bos and de Wit, 1996). Lagoon storage systems are commonly used in Canada and the United States, involving the use of water to transport manure to treatment lagoons, with the water often recycled as flush water or used for irrigation on fields.

E. contributing 15% or more to the total livestock nitrogen manure production). These countries are in Europe (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Switzerland) and Asia (Japan and Korea). 4. x In Ireland, France and the United Kingdom, while the overall nitrogen balance is high, the contribution of nitrogen from pig manure is small. x In Austria, Canada, Hungary, Poland and Spain the reverse is true, the overall nitrogen balance is low but the contribution of nitrogen from pig manure is high.

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