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For k = 0 to 2r−i−1 − 1 do Hiji-bij-bij 41 4. k1 = j + k2i+1 ; k2 = k1 + 2i ; 5. x1 = Mk1 ∧ m2i ; x2 = (Mk1 ∧ m2i+1 ) 2i ; 6. y1 = (Mk2 ∧ m2i ) 2i ; y2 = Mk2 ∧ m2i+1 ; 7. Mk1 = x1 ⊕ y1 ; Mk2 = x2 ⊕ y2 ; 8. enddo; 9. enddo; 10. enddo; 11. return M . Proposition 1. Let M be a 2r × 2s matrix with r ≤ s. Then the invocation FastTranspose(M ) requires r2r+2 bitwise operations on strings of length 2s . Moreover, if r = s, then the output is the transpose M t of M . The function Round() invokes FastTranspose(M ) with a 4 × 32 matrix M .

Easy to compute 2. Can detect both random errors and malicious alterations Disadvantages: 1. Must maintain secure storage of hash values 2. Does not bind identity with the data 3. Does not bind time with the data Digital Signatures A secure method of binding the identity of the signer with digital data integrity methods such as one-way hash values. These methods use a public key cryptosystem where the signer uses a secret key to generate a digital signature. Anyone can then validate the signature generated by using the published public key cer- Forensic Computing 27 tificate of the signer.

Sk . Remarks : 1. There are two allowed sizes for the secret key – 128 and 256 bits. If the key size is 256 bits, then Exp(KEY) = KEY||KEY; and if the key size is 128 bits, then Exp(KEY) = KEY||KEY||KEY||KEY. It is possible to allow other key sizes between 128 and 256 bits by suitably defining the key expansion function Exp(). 2. In the B mode, the system operates as a synchronous stream cipher. In the SS mode the system operates as a self-synchronizing stream cipher. As soon as four cipher blocks are correctly received the system automatically synchronizes and subsequent decryption is properly done.

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